• not: bunları bir ara tek tek türkçeye çevireceğim ancak şimdilik başka bir işle uğraştığımdan affınıza sığınıyorum.

    bu verilerin alındığı kaynak:

    "rate, c. r., clarke, j. a., lindsay, d. r., & sternberg, r. j. (2007). ımplicit theories of courage. the journal of positive psychology, 2(2), 80–98. doi:10.1080/17439760701228755 "

    --american heritage dictionary:
    the state or quality of mind or spirit than enables one to face danger with self possessions, confidence, and resolution; bravery (1985).

    --aquinas*: defined fortitude as firmness in mind in enduring or repulsing whatever makes steadfastness outstandingly difficult, that is, particularly serious dangers, primarily sustaining action to overcome fears of bodily harm and death and secondarily in persevering in attacking.

    --aristotle*: defined andreia (military courage) as the disposition to act appropriately in situations that involve fear and confidence: rationally determined mean between cowardice and foolhardiness.

    --cavanagh and moberg:
    courage, also called fortitude or bravery, is the ability to endure what is necessary to achieve a good end, even in the face of great obstacles (1999, p. 2).

    --clancy: courage is likely defined as a willingness to face tough choices as well as overcoming the fear associated with them
    (2003, p. 132).

    --evans and white: an empirical definition of courage probably involves three important attributional dimensions: (a) the fear level of the person making the attribution; (b) the perceived fear level of the attributee; and (c) salient features of the situation e.g., objective risk involved and so on (1981, p. 420).

    --finfgeld*: being courageous involves being fully aware of and accepting the threat of a long-term health concern, solving problems using discernment, and developing enhanced sensitivities to behavior consists of taking responsibility and being productive.

    --gergen and gergen*: to be courageous, then, is to remain steadfast within the bosom of those relationships from which one's sense of personal esteem and identity are derived.

    --gould: courage is revealed in three dimensions: (1) fear; (2) appropriate action; and (3) a higher purpose.

    --haitch*: courage is two-sided: there is an aspect of standing firm or fighting, and an aspect of accepting intractable realities... courage is the psychic strength that enables the self to face danger and death.

    --hemingway*: grace under pressure.

    --hobbes*: the contempt of wounds and violent death. ıt inclines men to private revenges, and sometimes to endeavor the unsettling of public peace.

    --kant*: defined fortudido as the capacity and the resolved purpose to resist a strong but unjust opponent; and with regard to the opponent of the moral disposition within us.

    --kennedy*: (describing senators with political courage) men whose abiding loyalty to their nation triumphed over personal and political considerations.

    --kilmann, o'hara and strauss: a courageous act in an organization includes five essential properties: (1) member has free choice to act; (2) member experiences significant risk; (3) member assess the risk as reasonable; (4) member's contemplated act pursues excellence or other worthy aims and (5) member proceeds despite fear with mindful action (2005).

    --klein and napier: courage involves five factors: candor (speak and hear the truth), purpose (pursue lofty and audacious goals), rigor (invent disciplines and make them stick), risk (empower, trust, and invest in relationships), and will (inspire optimism, spirit, and promise) (2003).

    --kohut*: oppose the pressures exerted on them and remain faithful to their ideals and themselves.

    --mccain and salter: defined courage as an act that risks life or limb or other very serious personal injuries for the sake of others or to uphold a virtue: a standard often upheld by battlefield heroics but one that is certainly not limited to martial valor (2004, p. 14).

    --mencius (mengzi): distinguished between types or courage, seeing some as ''petty,'' those concerned exclusively with personal honor; and ''great,'' those grounded in and oriented toward the good. ''those who know that they are in the right are justified in their cause and this provides them with the motivation to confront and engage even the greatest of dangers'' (cited in ıvanhoe, 2002, p. 68).

    --o'byrne, lopez and peterson*: dispositional psychological courage is the cognitive process of defining risk, identifying and considering alternative
    actions, and choosing to act in spite of potential negative consequences in an effort to obtain ''good'' for self or others recognizing that this perceived good may not be realized.

    --plato*: the ability to remember what is worth prizing and what is worth fearing.

    --putman*: facing the fears associated with the loss of psychological stability.

    --rachman: willing and able to approach a fearful situation despite the presence of subjective fear and psychophysiological disturbances (1990, p. 12).

    --seligman*: the capacity to rise to the occasion.

    --shelp* : the disposition to voluntarily act, perhaps fearfully, in a dangerous circumstance, where the relevant risks are reasonable appraised, in an effort to obtain or preserve some perceived good for oneself or others recognizing that the desired perceived good may not be realized.

    --shepela et al.: courageous resistance: selfless behavior in which there is high risk/cost to the actor, and possibly the actor's family and associates, where the behavior must be sustained over time, is most often deliberative, and often where the actor is responding to a moral call (1999, p. 789).

    --snyder*: extraordinary behavior in ordinary times.

    --walton: courage consists of three characteristics: (1) careful presence of mind and deliberate action, (2) difficult, dangerous, and painful circumstances, and (3) a morally worthy intention ... at the agent's personal risk and suffering (1986, p. 3).

    --woodard: courage is defined as the ability to act for a meaningful (noble, good, or practical) cause, despite experiencing the fear associated with perceived threat exceeding the available resources (2004, p. 174).

    benim tanımım ise şu: cesaret öngörülen sonucun gerçekleşmeyeceğine yahut gerçekleşse dahi eylemsiz kalmanın sonucundan kötü olmayacağına yönelik inanca dayalı eylem.

  • yapılacak işin bedelini ödemeyi göze almak.